Cyto-histopathological correlation in Hansen’s disease. A case series
Introduction: Hansen’s Disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects peripheral nerves and skin. Hansen’s disease can be diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions and peripheral nerves along with cytological and histopathological examination by demonstration of acid-fast bacilli.
Objectives: Concordance between clinical, cytological and histopathological diagnosis in cases of leprosy using Ridley–Jopling scale.
Material and methods: The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology Venerology and Leprosy in collaboration with Department of Pathology and Microbiology in Index Medical College Hospital and Research Centre Indore Madhya Pradesh, India. Ten patients clinically diagnosed as cases of leprosy were included in this study. Slit Skin smears and biopsies of all these cases of Hansen's disease were done and the cases were classified according to Ridley–Jopling classification into TT, BT, BB, I, BL, and LL. Cytological and histopathological correlation was done for all the cases.
Results: Observation from this study revealed commonest age group affected by Hansen’ s Disease was 41-50 Years of age. Males are affected predominantly and the commonest clinically diagnosed spectrum was LL (Lepromatous leprosy). It was observed that there was concordance between clinical diagnosis, cytological and histopathological diagnosis.
Conclusion: For accurate diagnosis correlation of clinical, cytological and histopathological features appears to be more reliable than considering any of the parameters alone.