Association between smoking and uveal melanoma: a systematic review

  • Gianpaolo Smaldone
  • Giulio De Paolis
  • Fernanda Pacella
  • Orazio Campagna
  • Giuseppe La Torre
  • Elena Pacella
Keywords: Tobacco smoking;, tumors of the eye;, uveal;, melanoma;


Background: The aim of this study is systematically review the scientific literature on the relationship between tobacco smoking
exposure and UM.
Methods: The search was performed on Medline and Scopus databases. For each database, we used the following query: “smok*
AND (eye OR uveal) melanoma”.
Results: 3 observational studies were considered suitable, two case-control studies and one cohort study. There is no significant
evidence in the scientific literature about the association between smoking and UM.
Conclusions: More complete and multi-center studies are desirable, giving the importance of smoking as a risk factor in the
development of cancers.